The vast majority of programs (88 percent) target at least some part of their education and communication at the entire enterprise. Marginal improvement is observed in average PEI scores when education and communication are functionally targeted, and more still when targeting is activity-based. But the 23 percent of respondents who reported individual targeting had the highest average PEI; an impressive 0.68. Just about half of the most highly effective programs use activity based targeting of education, compared to fewer than one in five of those in the bottom quintile. And while half of the top quintile also assign education on an individual employee basis, virtually no program among those in the bottom quintile does so.